Lord Wavell succeeded Lord Linlithgow as Governor General in October 1942, when the people were in the grip of a grave economic crisis: scarcity of essential commodities, increasing cost of living and Great Famine in Bengal. Politically the country was much more dividend than it was when Linlithgow had taken charge (April 1936). The history(…)

Partition Politics

The ‘Quit India’ Movement temporality removed the Congress from the field of constitutional politics. The leaders, kept in confinement, lost touch with the workers who were demoralised. This was an important factor in strengthening the Muslim League in Bengal, Sind and Assam. In Bengal and Sind, Muslim League Ministries were formed. In Assam a pro-Muslim(…)

Subhas Bose and The Indian National Army

While the Quit India movement was going on, the famous revolutionary Ras Behari Bose of ‘the Hardinge Bomb Case’ fame, who had escaped to Japan and had settled there, and Subhas Bose gave an entirely new turn to India’s struggle for freedom. Subhas Bose, who twice (1938-39) served as the President of the Congress, resigned(…)

Quit India Movement

The failure of the Cripps Mission plunged the country into despondency and anger. The fuel that fed this fire was supplied not only by the hypocrisy of the British government, but also by a host of other factors. The War situation was worsening day by day. After the fall of Singapore on 15 February, Rangoon(…)


In public policy, models constitute frameworks through which the problems faced and processes involved in the making of public policies are analysed. Some of the models proposed by the social scientists for public policy analysis are presented below: Systems Model The systems approach to policy analysis can be shown in the Figure below : The(…)


Two developments in the later half of 1941 changed the Indian situation. After overrunning a big part of Europe, Hitler invaded Russia on 22 June 1941. in the East, Japan attacked the American Naval fleet at Pearl Harbour and quickly swept the British from Malaya, Singapore, Indonesia and Burma, posing a serious threat to the(…)

Information Technology and E-Governance

E-Governance means accomplishing the functions of governance through the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Governance has become quite complex of late and the expectations of citizens from it have increased many times. So e-Governance is being forwarded as the solution to solve this problem. The use of Information and Communication Technology facilitates the(…)


Budget is a quantitative expression of a plan of action and an aid to co-ordination and implementation. Historically, in Britain, the King used to demand money to wage wars from the representatives of the countries under his possession. The representatives who used to be usually Nobles and Knights, used to commit the money on behalf(…)


There are various types of budgets that are currently in use across the world. A broad classification of all such budgets can be done using broadly two principles: Classification based on the agency that formulates the budget. Classification of budgets based on the technical principle behind budgeting. Classification based on the Formulating Agency Based on(…)