Public Administration is the study of how the administration of a country works and how the government was formed.

Administrative Reforms

The contemporary state is an “Administrative State”. Administration today touches every facet of human life. The citizen looks upon the administration as a moral agent that exists to serve his needs and enables him to achieve his aspirations and goals. However, the needs of people are continuously changing and the administration cannot afford to be(…)

Centre and Foci of Administrative Reforms in India

Reforms in administration are necessity for any country. Every country has its own particular environment which dictates the nature and character of reforms. Keeping in view the ancient and tradition bound socio-cultural environment and the two country- old colonial rules, we can outline certain basic issues in administrative reforms. The foci of Administrative Reforms in(…)

Process of Administrative Reforms

Administrative reform is not a one short activity. It is a continuous process that seeks to maintain a certain minimum standard of performance irrespective of the various kinds of change in the society. Administrative Reforms is a process that can be broken down into various steps/phases. Gerald Caiden has suggested the following process model for(…)

Monitoring of Public Policy

The concept of public policy, various models to formulate them, various implementation techniques and the problems associated with them have been studied in the previous chapters. In this chapter various issues related to the monitoring of public policy will be considered. If the monitoring is effective then it can ensure the achievement of objectives in(…)

Implementation of Public Policy

The success of government in achieving the developmental goals can be measured only by the implementation of public policies. Policy implementation is one of the most important features which reflects the image of government. Potential ideas of great vision can prove to be futile without a sound strategy for implementation. Of late implementation is becoming(…)

Significance of Public Policy in Public Administration

Policy can be defined as planned action of an entity whether individual, or a public or private institution to achieve a specific objective within the context of an environment. Policy formulation is pre-requisite for all types of management. Yehezkel Dror defines policies as “general directives on the main lines of action to be followed”. The(…)

Code of Conduct

Ethics is a set of values and principles which help in guiding the behaviour, choice and actions of the individuals. It helps to judge whether the actions of an individual are right or wrong. The ethical standards ensure that the individuals in an organisation have a consistent approach in carrying out their responsibilities and making(…)

Deficit Financing

A government may be said to be resorting to “deficit financing” when its expenditure exceeds its current revenue. In its widest sense the term deficit financing means an excess of expenditure incurred by the government over its current revenue. The deficit in the budget could be financed either through public borrowings or through the creation(…)

Public Borrowings and Public Debts

Public Debt is a modern phenomenon. It was hardly heard before 18th century. It is true that the Monarchs used to borrow from people to wage wars, but, such borrowings were on a very small scale. However, the complexities of the political and economic situation all over the world have led to tremendous growth in(…)


Accounting is an executive function and is an essential part of the budgetary process. Accounting means keeping a systematic record of financial transactions. A good accounting system is indispensable for adequate budgetary control. It is only through systematic accounts supported by vouchers and receipts that the legality and honesty of the transactions as also the(…)