Polity consist of constitution by which people of the state are to be governed. It establish main organs of the state like legislature, executive and judiciary.

Co-operative Federalism & Constitutional Provisions in India

In the older Federations, in the formative stages of development, the dominant operative concept was that of ‘competitive federation’ which denoted a spirit of competition and rivalry between the centre and the states. With the passage of time, the concept of co-operative federalism has emerged. This trend has been promoted by three powerful factors: the(…)

An Assessment of Centre-State Relations

A critical examination of the legislative, administrative and financial relations makes it very clear that under the Indian federal system, the Centre has been assigned a predominant position and role. Whether it is legislative, administrative or financial sphere, there is a discernible trend towards centralisation and unitarism. The Centre can encroach and interfere in the(…)

Financial Relations | CENTRE-STATE RELATIONS

The issue of financial relations has its own significance in a federation, in view of the fact that the distribution of powers necessitates the simultaneous distribution of resources for an adequate and efficient performance of the functions assigned to each government. The principle of political autonomy for the units of federation requires that there must(…)

Administrative Relations | CENTRE-STATE RELATIONS

The administrative relations between the Union and the States offer yet another proof of the highly integrated nature of the Indian federation. Under the Constitution, the Union Government can exercise the executive power in respect of all matters within its legislative jurisdiction. Some of these matters, such as customs and central excise, income tax, railways,(…)

Legislative Relations | CENTRE-STATE RELATIONS

The framers of the Indian Constitution perceived the need for a strong Central Government in order to keep the disintegrating forces in check and safeguard the integrity of the country. This aspect has made the Indian federation a unique one among the federal structures of the world. It is characterised by a high degree of(…)

Special Status of Jammu & Kashmir

The State of Jammu and Kashmir enjoys a truly federal constitutional relations with the Union. Owing to its strategic location, sharing border with both India and Pakistan, Jammu & Kashmir was able to maintain its independence by not joining either of the Dominions of Pakistan and India. Daunted with the problem of forced annexation with(…)

Composition of the Houses

Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad). The total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council shall not exceed one-third of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly of that State. But the total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State shall in no case be(…)

Council of Ministers

Council of Ministers in the State is constituted and functions in the same way as the Union Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers is headed by the Chief Minister and is responsible to the State Legislative Assembly. The Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. Any person can(…)

Powers and Functions of the Governor

The Constitution confers on the Governor quite a large number of powers which may be grouped under five heads: Executive Powers The executive power of the State is vested in the Governor. It is exercised by him directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution. The executive power of the State(…)


The pattern of Government in the States is the same as that of the Union, i.e. a Parliamentary System. The executive head of a State is the Governor who is to act according to the advice of the Council of Ministers. Normally, each State has its own Governor, but under the Seventh Amendment Act, 1956,(…)