Polity consist of constitution by which people of the state are to be governed. It establish main organs of the state like legislature, executive and judiciary.

Legislature for Delhi as per Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991.

The 69th Amendment Act of the Constitution has given effect to these proposals by inserting Article 239AA. According to this Amendment, Union Territory of Delhi shall be called the National Capital Territory and it shall have a Legislative Assembly to which members shall be chosen by direct election from the territorial Constituencies. The Assembly shall(…)

Election Commission amends symbols order (2005)

Keeping in view the present democratic set up, the Election Commission has amended the Election symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968, with an intention to liberalise and straighten out the criteria to grant national and state-level status recognition to political parties. As per the amended criteria, a political party intending to be recognised as a(…)

Election Commission

According to the provision contained in Art. 324, there shall be a single Election Commission for the country, entrusted with the power to superintend, direct and control all elections to Parliament and State Legislatures and to the offices of the President and the Vice-President. The Election Commission consists of Chief Election Commissioner and such other(…)

Elections in INDIA

The ‘Electoral System’ in India has been borrowed from United Kingdom. In order to hold the elections in a non-partisan spirit and to ensure fair and free elections, the Constitution provides for an Election Commission. The elections are held on the basis of universal adult suffrage. Every person who is a citizen of India and(…)

Constitutional safeguards to Civil Servants and Administrative Tribunals

All persons who are members of the Civil Services of the Union or of the All India Services hold office during the pleasure of the President. Similarly, members of the State Services hold office during the pleasure of the Governor. This is known as the “doctrine of pleasure tenure” of the Government Servants. The Judges(…)

Public Service Commissions

There is a Public Service Commission for the Union and a Public Service Commission for each State or a Joint Public Service Commission for two or more States. They are independent autonomous bodies under the Constitution of India. The Union Public Service Commission consists of a Chairman and such other members as may be decided(…)

Services under the Union and The States

Importance of Civil Services. The civil services form an integral part and play a crucial role in any modern democratic Government. In a democracy, the policy of the administration is determined and laid down by political executives (the Ministers) but the policy is carried out and the administration is largely run by permanent executives (the(…)

Punchhi Commission on Centre-State Relations

A new commission to examine Centre – state ties was set up on April 27, 2007. The Commission is headed by Justice Madam Mohan Punchi (retd.) former Chief Justice of India. The terms of reference of the Commission are as under: A. The commission will examine and review the working of the existing arrangements between(…)

Demands of Autonomy for the States

The State Governments of the Indian Union have been consistently demanding greater autonomy especially since 1967, when the emergence of State Governments led by regional parties started taking place. The major sources of tension between the States and Centre were and still are emergency provision under Art. 356, the controversial role of Governor, implementation of(…)

Agencies outside the Constitution in India

There are six major Agencies that work outside  the Constitution in India. We explained them in detail below. They are :- i) Zonal Councils The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 while recommending the formation of linguistic States, with the objective of controlling potential friction and solving problems of common concern also provided for the establishment of(…)