Polity consist of constitution by which people of the state are to be governed. It establish main organs of the state like legislature, executive and judiciary.

Forms of Democracy in India

National Government. This is a kind of broader coalition Government, with participation from all the political parties having effective representation in the legislature, in this government, essentially there exists no opposition parties, in the legislature. As per the history of political experience and practice, usually the national government is formed during the time of national(…)

Direct Democratic Devices

There are four direct democratic devices which are generally prevalent and practised in the world even today in which people, as citizens and electorate, directly participate. These are, Initiative, Referendum, Recall and Plebiscite. Initiative –This device gives the power to the electorate to get the laws passed according to their wishes. If a specific number(…)

Indian Democracy at Work

Democracy literally means rule of the people and in the ordinary sense of the term, it means government of the people, for the people and by the people as defined by Abraham Lincon. The term ‘Democracy’ has been interpreted by scholars to give a variety of meaning and sense. It stands as a form of(…)

Important Amendments to the Constitution SO FAR

Since the entry into force of the Indian Constitution on 26th January, 1950 upto January, 2004, the Constitution has been amended more than ninety times and the fact is, still many Bills are pending in the Houses of Parliament to be passed. However, here are some of the important amendments which are of utmost importance.(…)

Basic Structure of the Constitution

The theory of ‘Basic Structure’ is sometimes also called ‘Basic Features’ or ‘Basic Framework’ of the Constitution. This was nowhere mentioned in the original Constitution. The doctrine of basic structure is, in fact, a judicial innovation which was propounded by the Supreme Court in the famous Keshavanand Bharati vs. State of Kerala case (1973). In(…)

Amendment of the Constitution

The Constitution is basically an organic and dynamic document and it should always be able to grow with the growth of the nation. Hence, there should be scope to make amendment in the Constitution as per the changing needs and circumstances of the people and society at large. Commonly, the constitutions of federal governments are(…)

Emergency caused by the failure of Constitutional Machinery in a State

Art. 356 says that if the President, on receipt of a report from the Governor of a State or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the Government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, he may issue a proclamation. By that proclamation: the(…)

Effects of Proclamation of Emergency

The effect of a proclamation of emergency is the emergence of a full-fledged unitary Government. Its effect can be studied under the following heads: (1) Executive; (2) Legislative; (3) Financial; and (4) on Fundamental Rights. Executive. While a proclamation of emergency is in operation, the President is empowered to issue directions to States as to(…)

Emergency Provisions in Indian Constitution

One of the most important and the chief characteristics of the Indian Constitution relates to the enormous emergency powers vested in the Union Executive. Since a Federal Government involves division of power, it is generally considered to be a weak Government. In order to overcome pitfalls of contingency situation, the Constitution concentrates the emergency powers(…)

Union Territories in India

The Constitution of India, in its original form, provided for three categories of States (States in Part A, States in Part B and States in Part C) and Territory in Part D. But the above classification was abolished by the 7th Amendment Act, 1956, and created in its place three categories of units viz. the(…)