Polity consist of constitution by which people of the state are to be governed. It establish main organs of the state like legislature, executive and judiciary.

Supreme Court Verdict on Anti-Defection Act

In November 1991, a constitutional Bench of the Supreme Court by a majority judgement upheld the validity of the Anti-Defection Act. But it held para 6(1) which provides that the decision of the Presiding Officer of a House on the question of disqualification of a member is final as void. It held, that para 6(1)(…)

Politics of Defections – The Anti-Defection Act

The politics of defections has been one of the conspicuous features of Indian poli­tics since the fourth general election of 1967. This has resulted in the fall of nearly 50 State Governments. Anti-Defection Act, 1985 Though the political parties felt greatly concerned over this development and ex­pressed their desire to check the evil of defection(…)

Election Expenditure Ceiling Raised

The Union Cabinet decided in October 2003 to increase the permissible ceiling of poll expenses by candidates for the Lok Sabha and State Assembly seats. Before the expenditure ceiling was raised, the expenses limit prescribed under the Election Rules was Rs. 15 lakhs for each Lok Sabha candidate, which has been now raised to 25(…)

Law Panel Recommendations for Electoral Reforms

The Law Commission headed by former Supreme Court Judge, Shri B. P. Jeevan Reddy, has made some of the important recommendations to the Union Government for Electoral Reforms in its report submitted in September 1999. It was intended to make the elections and electoral system more fair and effective so that the nerves of democracy(…)

Dinesh Goswami Committee on Electoral Reforms

The National Front, in its election manifesto, had promised extensive electoral reforms. As per that promise, an Electoral Law Reform Committee was constituted in February 1990, under the Chairmanship of the then Union Law Minister (Late) Mr. Dinesh Goswami, to recommend broad spectrum of electoral reforms. Electoral Reform Bill (May 30, 1990) In consequence of(…)

Representation of the People (Amendment) Act, 1988

An issue of great interest to all sections of the people, the various political parties and the Central as well as State Governments, is that of electoral reforms. The present system is defective and does not ensure a fair opportunity to every candidate. The money power, the soaring election expenditure, corruption and other electoral malpractices(…)

Causes for Distortions in the Electoral System

Many factors pose a very serious threat to Indian democracy. Some of the impor­tant causes for the distortion in the electoral system are: There is the problem of massive illiteracy which causes ignorance and prevents adequate understanding of the various democratic practices and processes. With widespread illiteracy, democracy based on adult franchise cannot serve the(…)

Role of the Election Commission

The superintendence, direction and control of all elections in India are vested in the Election Commission headed by the Chief Election Commissioner, who is expected to function freely and without any executive interference. The Chief Election Commissioner has the same constitutional protection as is given to a Judge of the Supreme Court. The functions of(…)

Universal Adult Franchise in India and the voting pattern

The right to vote for all the adult population of a country is a privilege which man has acquired after a long period of struggle in different countries. This is one of the pillars of a representative democracy. In India, the Constitution has provided the right to vote to all its citizens, male as well(…)

Electoral System

The Electoral System adopted in India is borrowed from a similar one operating in U. K. However, in India, it has not been entirely left to the Legislature, and the Constitution itself makes detailed provisions in this regard. The Constitution also empowers Parliament to legislate in respect of all matters relating to elections. In pursuance(…)