Polity consist of constitution by which people of the state are to be governed. It establish main organs of the state like legislature, executive and judiciary.

Directive Principles of State Policy – Part IV

The enumeration of the Directive Principles of State Policy under Part IV of the Constitution covering Articles from 36 to 51 forms a unique feature of the Indian Constitution. They are the most novel and striking features in view of the fact that they constitute very comprehensive social, economic and administrative programmes for a modern(…)

Right to Property

Right to property under the original provisions of the Constitution as mentioned under Articles 19(1)(f) and 41 had a threefold provision as to this: It guaranteed the right of every citizen to acquire and dispose of any property. This was limited by the exigencies of public welfare and protection of the interests of Scheduled Tribes.(…)

Nature of Fundamental Rights

The Fundamental Rights provide protection only against the State action and do not safeguard against the action of private individuals, except the rights pertaining to abolition of untouchability and the right against exploitation. In these two cases, fundamental rights are available both against the state and individuals. The Fundamental Rights granted to individuals under the(…)

Loss of Indian Citizenship

The Citizenship Act, 1955 also lays down the three modes by which an Indian citizen whether a citizen at the commencement of the Constitution or subsequent to it – may lose his citizenship. These are renunciation, termination and deprivation. Renunciation is a voluntary act by which a person after acquiring the citizenship of another country,(…)


Almost all the constitutions of the world have a Preamble. The Preamble, in general, is a very comprehensive expression of the philosophy on which the whole constitutional structure is based. The Preamble to a Constitution sets out the main objectives which the legislature is intended to achieve. As the Supreme Court has observed the Preamble(…)

Schedules Of The Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India at the time of adoption had only eight Schedules to which four more were added during the last fifty-seven years. 1. First Schedule – Contains the list of the States and Union Territories. 2. Second Schedule – It consists of five parts Part ‘A’ – Emoluments to the President of India(…)

Framing or Making of the Indian Constitution

Constitution is a document of people’s faith and aspirations possessing a special legal sanctity. It is the fundamental law of a country and all other laws and customs of the country in order to be valid must conform to it. It sets out the framework and the principal functions of various organs of the Government,(…)

Recent Constitutional Amendments in India

1. The Constitution (One Hundred and Sixteenth Amendment) Bill, 2011 The Constitution (One Hundred and Sixteenth Amendment Bill, 2011 was introduced in the Lok Sabha Amendment) Bill, 2011 was introduced in the Lok Sabha on December 22, 2011. The Bill amends the Constitution by inserting a new part XIVB (adding Articles 323C and 323D) to(…)

Procedure of Amendment and Important Amendments

The Indian Constitution is blend of flexibility and rigidity. The constitution of India empowers, Indian Parliament under Art. 368 to initiate amendment to the constitution. The three methods provided are:- a)      By Simple Majority – Some parts of constitution can be amended by a simple majority. Example- Creation or organization of states, abolition of upper(…)

Government Of The States Of India

In India the Constitution establishes a federal form of government as distinguished from the unitary type of Government. The essence of this type of government is that there is distribution of powers between the Union and the State. THE EXECUTIVE The State executive consists of the Governor, the State Council of Ministers and the Advocate(…)