Polity consist of constitution by which people of the state are to be governed. It establish main organs of the state like legislature, executive and judiciary.

Provision for Women under the Constitution

In the context of special provisions provided for certain classes under the Constitution, it needs to be remembered that, women as a class neither belong to a minority group nor are they taken as a backward class. But it’s a fact that in the male dominated Indian society women suffer from distinct social and economic(…)

Lokpal and Lokayukta

Lokpal is the counterpart to the north European institution of Ombudsman, which originated in the early part of last century. Lokpal is meant to bring to book the highest political functionaries of the Government – the members of political executive in the Union Government and members of Parliament who are charged with corruption. The Administrative(…)


India is a country of 16% of world population in the sub-continental dimension of 2% of world area in size having large geographical regions and sub-regions within it. The large spread out regions are marked by distinct diversity of culture like languages, social customs, ways of life and they are also at different stages of(…)

Caste System

The Caste System is the basis of Hindu social organisation. There are more than two thousand castes and sub-castes in India. Most of the castes are confined to relatively small geographical areas within a particular racial and linguistic region. It is within the rural areas that the caste system has its most powerful hold. Traditionally,(…)

National Integration

India is a symbol of unity in diversity. The diversity of India has, no doubt, given richness and variety to its culture and tradition, but it has also been accompanied by patterns of social and cultural fragmentation. A country so variegated as India, has almost every known social division based on religion, sect, language, caste,(…)

Election of Members and Chairpersons

All the members of Panchayats at all levels shall be elected directly by the people. But, the Chairperson of Panchayats at the intermediate and district levels shall be elected indirectly by and from amongst the elected members thereof. At the village level chairperson is to be elected in such manner as the state legislature may(…)

Local Government – Interest or Pressure Groups

In the modern era, the local government marked their beginning in the Rippon’s Resolutions of 1881 and 1882. In Independent India several efforts were made in the direction of revival of the institutional set up of the local self government. In this direction community Development Programme (CDP) was started on 2nd October, 1952. The second(…)

Types of Pressure Groups

Generally, there are five types of pressure groups. Associational pressure groups are functionally specialised and articulate the interests of specific groups in the society such as management, labour, business, agriculture, etc. Non-associational pressure groups are based on factors like class, caste, kinship, ethnicity, religion etc., and they articulate interests irregularly and informally. Institutional pressure groups(…)

Interest or Pressure Groups

Interest group or pressure group is a kind of group activity which is common to all democratic societies. This assumes significance because it is a part of the political process, though of course, it is not a part of the government. It is related to government in the sense that it protects or promotes a(…)

Main Political Parties (National and Regional) and Public Opinion

It is a vital truth that modern democratic government is impossible without political parties; and that democratic government is party based government. Political parties have become an indispensable factor in the working of a representative government, and, therefore, the late French President de Gaulle called it “the regime of parties”. However, most constitutions are silent(…)