History commonly refers to the events which happened earlier in time and are responsible for our present. These are the sequence of events that occured long time ago.

Communal Award in 19th Century

Before convening the third round of R. T. C., the British Prime Minister announced the Communal Award on 10 August 1932 which he had promised at the Second Round Table Conference The Award was based on the British theory that India was not a nation but a congeries of racial, religious and cultural groups, ‘castes(…)

Resumption of the Second Phase of The Civil Disobedience Movement (1932-34)

Gandhi returned to India, after attending the Second RTC, as an utterly frustrated person, more so on account of the non-fillment of the terms of the Gandhi-lrwin Pact and the continuing British repression against the Indian people. The higher British officials believed that the government had made a major mistake in negotiating with Gandhi on(…)

Second Round Table Conference

Gandhi attended the second Round Table Conference in London as the sole representative of the Congress. M. M. Malviya and Sarojini Naidu were nominated by the viceroy in their personal capacity. Gandhi’s request to the Viceroy to nominate Ansari was refused on the ground that his name was objected to by the Muslims. Other members(…)


While the RTC was being held in London, the civil disobedience movement was running its turbulent course which baffled the government. Inspite of the repressive measures, it had been spreading unabated, affecting all the provinces. The removal of Gandhi from the scene did not put an end to the movement. By the end of 1930,(…)

First Round Table Conference

The Report of the Simon Commission came on June 13, 1930. I did not make any mention of Dominion Status. The proposals of the Commission were rejected both by the Congress and the Muslim League. As a conciliatory gesture and to side-trac the Simon Commission Report, the Viceroy suggested holding of a round table conference(…)

Government Reaction to Civil Disobedience Movement

The government’s response to the civil disobedience movement was a combination of repression and conciliation. It started with repressive measures but as the movement gained momentum, it adopted a conciliatory attitude. In the process, it made full use of its policy of divide and rule. As expected, the initial policy of the colonial government to(…)

Critical Appraisal Limitations

The Civil Disobedience Movement was a multi-layer, multi-class, multi- generation and multi dimensional movement. As compared to the non-cooperation movement, the Civil Disobedience movement was a definite advance towards the goal of national liberation. Participation in the movement this time was much more risky because the government adopted a policy of senseless violence towards peaceful(…)

Programme of the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34)

The breaking of the Salt Laws at Dandi April 5, 1930, marked formal inauguration of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Programmes of the Civil Disobedience included: i) absentation from attending educational institutions by the students and offices by public servants, ii) picketing of shops dealing in liquor, opium and foreign goods, iii) bon-fire of foreign cloth,(…)

Dandi March – Salt Satyagraha

The national movement made qualitative advance in 1930s. After the declaration of Poorna Swarajya, the country was far more imbibed with the Congress ideology and with Gandhian techniques than it had been in 1920s. The people were convinced that Gandhi meant what he said regarding non-violence though he himself seemed to have modified his position(…)

Lahore Session of the Congress (1929) & 14 Points of JINNAH

It was in the background of the ultimatum served by the Calcutta session of the Congress regarding the acceptance or rejection of the Nehru Report by the year-end by the British Government, historic Lahore session of the Congress was held under the presidentship of Jawahar Lal Nehru. On 31 December 1929; the one year grace(…)