History commonly refers to the events which happened earlier in time and are responsible for our present. These are the sequence of events that occured long time ago.

Industrial Revolution in England and the Financial Phase

Revolution in England big manufacturing industries were established, in Britain. As a result of the Industrial raw material in large quantity/volume and wanted the colonies to act as the supplier of raw materials. The industries produced goods on a  large scale and wanted to expand their market so as to earn profit. The colonies where(…)

Other Important Land Revenue Settlements

The extension of the British Empire in Deccan and South India necessitate a new type of administrative organization based on different systems of land revenue settlement. Under these circumstances, the advisability of settling the lands on the model of Bengal was seriously debated.   Ryotwari Settlement Sir Thomas Munro exposed the weakness of the Permanent(…)

Salient features of socio religious movements of 19th century

These movements made an attempt to reorder and reshape society, social behavior, custom, structure, control etc. All socio-religious movements demanded changes. The existing socio-cultural evils and malpractices such obscurantism, superstition and irrationality embedded in the society were the severest targets of the intellectual attack. The intellectuals did not however attack the social system as a(…)

LORD CURZON (1899- 1905)

LORD CURZON (1899- 1905) Curzon did the following reforms in India 1)      Administrative Reforms 2)      Economic Reforms 3)      Foreign Policy 4)      Partition of Bengal ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS a)      Calcutta municipal corporation act 1899 : Rippon gave gift of local self-government to Indians but this gift became curse by the act of 1892 in this situation when(…)


  In this article we will discuss about the moderates (1885-1905) and Act of 1892. MODERATES (1885 – 1905) a)      Preface b)      Contribution c)       Achievement d)      Evaluation   PREFACE The first phase of congress leaders were called moderates because they opted the philosophy of p(3) i.e. petition, prayer and protest. There were two reasons behind(…)


INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS Preface of Indian national congress Hypothesis of official conspiracy Hypothesis of safety valve   A) PREFACE Initial name Venue Objective President INITIAL NAME The initial name of congress was Indian national union but later on due to proposal of Dadabhai naraoji it got the name Indian national congress. The term congress means(…)


Lord Ripon came to India to place ointment on the wounds given by the Lytton from his policies. His policies were: Repealed Vernacular press act Reduction in salt duty Appointment of hunter commission Local self-Government Factory act 1881                   REPEALED VERNACULAR PRESS ACT Lytton has put a(…)

Indian Council Act 1861

After the act of 1858 British government gave act of 1861 to Indian peoples. The educated middle class was not happy with the act of 1858 so they started reacting against British parliament so to satisfy them British parliament gave the act of 1861. The main provisions of government of India act were: – Birth(…)

LORD LYTTON (1876-1880)

Lord Lytton was a very literate personality as he was essayist, novelist, poet etc. He was given the title of “Owen Meredith” and because of all his achievement he was appointed to handle external and internal threat but his reactionary policies proved fatal for Lytton in British Empire.   The important policies of Lytton were:(…)

Government of India act 1858

Important provisions of act of 1858 are: –  End of dual government Appointment of Imperial civil service commissioner (ICS) Beginning of Responsible government End Of Dual Government The act of 1858 ended dual government. Before 1857 there were two masters of India. Board of control (on behalf of British crown) Court of directors (on behalf(…)