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HISTORY

History commonly refers to the events which happened earlier in time and are responsible for our present. These are the sequence of events that occured long time ago.

WHY CONGRESS ACCEPTED THE PARTITION OF INDIA

Change in Congress’ Stand- By the time Attlee made the declaration on February 20, 1946, which clearly hinted at the partition, the Congress barely uttered any protest. Infact, the Working Committee of the Congress at its meeting on March 8, 1946, it announced that the Constitution thus framed by the Constituent Assembly ‘would apply only(…)

Reorganisation of States

The British rulers in India had formed the provinces from time to time on ground of expediency. After the merger of states, a number of new administrative units were created. Therefore, there was an immediate need for the ‘Reorganisation of States’ on scientific lines, “so that the welfare of the people of each constituent unit(…)

INDIAN INDEPENDENCE ACT

The Indian Independence Act passed by the British Parliament in July 1947 provided the legal provision for the transfer of power. Its provisions were : Setting up of ‘two independent Dominions… to be known respectively as India and Pakistan’ on August 15, 1947. The Indian Dominion would include the whole of British India with the(…)

Rise of Muslim Communalism and Partition of India

Centuries before the British rule in India, the Hindus and Muslims had lived together without any bitterness and the century’s long cordial interactions and inter-relations between the two communities led to the growth of rich composite culture. But with the coming of the British, the Indian social scenario, where all communities had been living undiluted(…)

TOWARDS PARTITION AND INDEPENDENCE

(a) Direct Action Day (August 16, 1946) The Muslim League now took a course of action which had no parallel in the recorded history of India. The Direction Action Day, fixed for August 16, was an invitation to the worst communal holocaust. On August 16 and the days following it bands of Muslim rowdies went(…)

CABINET MISSION PLAN

The Cabinet Mission, composed of three British Cabinet Minister-Sir Pethick Lawrence, the Secretary of State for India, Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade and A. V. Alexander, First Lord of the Admiralty—arrived in New Delhi on March 24, 1946. Sir Pethick Lawrence, while announcing the appointment of the Mission had made it(…)

Royal Indian Navy MUTINY

Indian soldier and sailers of the Royal Indian Navy (RIN) nicnamed as the Ratings’, rose in rebellion on February 18, 1948, when Ratings in the Signal School training establishment ‘Talwar’ went on hunger strike to protest ‘against the untold hardships regarding pay and food, racial discrimination and against their commander’s derogatory reference to their national(…)

WAVELL PLAN AND SIMLA CONFERENCE

Lord Wavell succeeded Lord Linlithgow as Governor General in October 1942, when the people were in the grip of a grave economic crisis: scarcity of essential commodities, increasing cost of living and Great Famine in Bengal. Politically the country was much more dividend than it was when Linlithgow had taken charge (April 1936). The history(…)

Partition Politics

The ‘Quit India’ Movement temporality removed the Congress from the field of constitutional politics. The leaders, kept in confinement, lost touch with the workers who were demoralised. This was an important factor in strengthening the Muslim League in Bengal, Sind and Assam. In Bengal and Sind, Muslim League Ministries were formed. In Assam a pro-Muslim(…)

Subhas Bose and The Indian National Army

While the Quit India movement was going on, the famous revolutionary Ras Behari Bose of ‘the Hardinge Bomb Case’ fame, who had escaped to Japan and had settled there, and Subhas Bose gave an entirely new turn to India’s struggle for freedom. Subhas Bose, who twice (1938-39) served as the President of the Congress, resigned(…)