Atmosphere is a gaseous envelope extending many kilometers above our planet’s surface. One of many four major components of environment, the atmosphere is one of dynamic as modifications to it hap not just in one season to a new but additionally in just a short while of couple of hours. In the total mass from(…)

Major Land Forms

Endogenetic forces are responsible for development of primary land form on 1st order and second order land form like Mountain, Continent, Plateaus etc. Exogenetic forces are the destructive forces by the river, glacier, wind, wave etc. which transformed the first & second order land forms into 3rd order landform like plateau, plain etc. Types of(…)

Evolution of the Earth

Continental Drift Theory Alfred Wegner, a German Scientist, in 1912, proposed that all land masses of the world had been formed from one super-continent, called Pangaea. Pangaea had evolved some 280 million years ago, at the end of the Carboniferous Period. 150 million years ago Pangaea had split into a northern continent called ‘Laurasia’, and(…)

Types of Soils

Soils undoubtedly are a product of a complex combination of weathered and eroded rock materials on one hand and organic resides on the other instrument. Weathering changes consolidated rock for an unconsolidated (loose) material. The decomposition of plants and micro-organisms releases organic chemicals (humus) that connect to the loose material, giving rise to be able(…)

Types of Rocks

The earth’s solid layer, called lithosphere is about 100 kms in thickness. The word ‘lithosphere’ literally means ‘a sphere of rocks’.  “Rocks are made of individual solid substances called minerals. Each mineral usually contains two or more elements of which the whole earth is made.” All rocks are not hard. Clay, for example, is an(…)

Indian Council Act 1861

After the act of 1858 British government gave act of 1861 to Indian peoples. The educated middle class was not happy with the act of 1858 so they started reacting against British parliament so to satisfy them British parliament gave the act of 1861. The main provisions of government of India act were: – Birth(…)

LORD LYTTON (1876-1880)

Lord Lytton was a very literate personality as he was essayist, novelist, poet etc. He was given the title of “Owen Meredith” and because of all his achievement he was appointed to handle external and internal threat but his reactionary policies proved fatal for Lytton in British Empire.   The important policies of Lytton were:(…)

Latitudes and the Longitudes

Latitudes:  Latitudes are circles separating our planet into two unequal parts and they also run parallel for the equator that cuts into two equal halves, i.e., two hemispheres. The equator is always 0 o latitude and the poles are at 90 o latitude. Count of latitude is 181. Longitudes: The longitudes are ‘great circles’ that(…)

Government of India act 1858

Important provisions of act of 1858 are: –  End of dual government Appointment of Imperial civil service commissioner (ICS) Beginning of Responsible government End Of Dual Government The act of 1858 ended dual government. Before 1857 there were two masters of India. Board of control (on behalf of British crown) Court of directors (on behalf(…)

Universe and the Big Bang Theory

The study of the universe on the grand scale is known as Cosmology. Most the theories of development of universe use the astronomical observation “Redshift”. In the event the star is moving towards the observer its light is going to be now use nowhere end in the spectrum and it’s shifted toward red end if(…)