No administrator functions in a vacuum. As one is influenced heavily by the current cultural milieu: i.e. values, belief and attitude prevalent in society, well as the culture unique to the organization. Culture basically represents a pattern of values and behaviour, where response pattern persists over a period of time and gets institutionalized.
Culture refers to a way of life. It includes the entire gamut of modes of expression and communication as well as the system of values and beliefs governing the society. Values refer to preferences i.e. ideas of good or bad, desirable or undesirable. Culture determines what is desirable conduct and behaviour for the members of the society. The culture of a society is a result of a long process of evolution a nais reflected in its social, economic and political institutions. The administrative behaviour in the society is influenced to a greater extent by the values cherished by the society. Riggs states that every culture offers both support and obstacles to change or development. There are values that support change and development. Likewise, there are values, which obstruct the change and development. These values are termed by David Apter as ‘instrumental’ and ‘consummatory respectively. A society having instrumental values becomes modernized. If the civil servants have instrumental values, they will definitely work towards the development of the society
Culture basically represents a pattern of values and behaviour, where response pattern persists over a period of time and gets institutionalized. Every country whether underdeveloped, developing and developed has its own administrative culture. The overall socio-economic and political environment in which the administration works has a direct bearing upon its functionaries, and goes to mould their manner, style and behaviour pattern; their aspirations, ethos and values are shaped by them. These, in combination, constitute what many are called the Administrative Culture. The administrative culture is a complex phenomenon. Today it is not easy to identify the parameters and dimensions that constitute administrative culture. It is difficult even to say whether administrative culture is something distinct or it is only a subsystem of the culture of a country. Nevertheless, it is realized that the administrator and his outlook or world view, his perception of the natural goals and functional purposes, politico-administrative environment, the socio-cultural norms and ideals of the society, his perception and the response of the citizens help in understanding as well as determining the administrative culture of any society.
The administrative culture of Third World nations generally (even India) India, is affected by (a) the colonial Legacy, and (b) the traditional/societal influences. The administrative culture is a product of three factors viz., the administrative personality, issue and context.
Here the administrator, as an individual and as part of the system, through his manners, behaviour, ways and style, influences the formation of an administrative personality which also shapes the attitude and motivations of that individual. The shaping of his personality is affected by time. It may still persist or even change over time. The overall impact of personality and time is on the situation in which the administration functions. Whether it functions effectively and efficiently or ineffective and inefficiently, depend upon the administrative culture which has a direct reference to the laws of the land, rules, regulations, procedures, norms, manners etc. Beside it the style of administration, on the one hand, depends upon social economic and political environment, and the public of that nation. Thus culture is the man-made part of the environment. It is the totality of belief, norms and values related to the regulatory pattern in administrator’s behaviour.
Carl Friedrich opines that inculcation of appropriate values among administrators serves as the major check on the bureaucracy. This view holds that formal institutional checks will usually fail if officials do not have sound democratic and administrative values. In essence, administrators must have an internal compass i.e. values to point them in the appropriate direction and way.
Civil Service Values in the United Kingdom:
- The Civil Service is an integral and key part of the Government of the United Kingdom. It supports the Government of the day in developing and implementing its policies, and in delivering public services. Civil servants are accountable to Ministers, who in turn are accountable to Parliament.
- As a civil servant, you are appointed on merit on the basis of fair and open competition and are expected to carry out your role with dedication and a commitment to the Civil Service and its core values: integrity, honesty, objectivity and impartiality. In this Code:
- ‘integrity’ is putting the obligations of public service above your own personal interests;
- ‘honesty’ is being truthful and open;
- ‘objectivity* is basing your advice and decisions on rigorous analysis of the evidence; and
- ‘impartiality’ is acting solely according to the merits of the case and serving equally well Governments of different political persuasions.
- These core values support good government and ensure the achievement of the highest possible standards in all that the Civil Service does. This in turn helps the Civil Service to gain and retain the respect of Ministers, Parliament, the public and its customers.
VALUES AS PER DRAFT BUBLIC SERVICES BILL IN INDIA
Values of Public Services: The Public Service and the Public Servants shall be guided by the following values in the discharge of their functions:
- patriotism and upholding national pride;
- allegiance to the Constitution and the law of the nation;
- objectivity, impartiality, honesty, diligence, courtesy and transparency;
- maintain absolute integrity.
Public Services Code: The Government shall promote the Public Service Values and a standard of ethics in the Public Service operations, requiring and facilitating every Public Service employee —
- to discharge official duties with competence and accountability; care and diligence; responsibility, honesty, objectivity and impartiality; without discrimination and in accordance with the law;
- to ensure effective management, professional growth and leadership development;
- to avoid misuse of official position or information and using the public moneys with utmost care and economy; and
- function with the objective that Public Services and Public Servants are to serve as instruments of good governance and to provide services for the betterment of the public at large; foster socio-economic development, with due regard to the diversity of the nation but without discrimination on the ground of caste, community, religion gender or class and duly protecting the interest of poor, underprivileged and weaker sections.
Public Services Management Code: The Government shall, in consultation with all stakeholders, prepare Public Services Management Code on the following principles:
- Public Services is established as a professional, merit based institution for promoting government policies and good governance;
- Mechanisms and incentives to achieve and maintain high levels of productivity, efficiency and excellence;
- Policies and structures to promote the viability and sustainability of the public services keeping in view the finances of the government;
- The interface between the political executive and the public services based on the principles of neutrality, professional excellence and integrity; and
- Public Servants shall be accountable for their decisions or the decision making process in implementation of the management of code.