Here are the following minerals found in India with all their details like places of occurrences, ratio etc.
Coal is combustible, solid stratified rock of organic and mineral matter.
– Rani Ganj coal Field (W.B.) – Jharia and Chandrapura Coal Field (Jharkhand) – Bokaro and Giridih Coal Field (Jharkhand) – Jharkhand has the largest coal reserves (37% followed by W.B. (18%) and M.P. (16%)
Varieties of Coal
Depending on the amount of Carbon, moisture and volatile matter, coal can be classified into:- Anthracite (80% carbon) – Bituminous (60-80% carbon) – Lignite (Brown Coal, 60% Carbon) – peat (first stage of transformation of wood into coal, 50-60% carbon)
Occurrence of coal in India
- It occurs as a sedimentary rock in association with carbonacius shale, sandstone and even fireclay in a regular succession and in repetitions.
- Gondwana Coal: Gondwana coal is found as drifted deposits and was formed during Permian age.
- The Gondwana coals account for morethan 98.1 percent of the annual production of coal which is generally of bituminous rank.
- Coal fields in M.P., Bihar, Orissa, Andhra, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh.
TERTIARY COAL: TERITIARY COAL OCCURS AS IN SITU
- Coal of younger age.
- Confined to extra-peninsular area like Assam, Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh.
- Neyveli (T.N.)
- Important source of Thermal Energy, Low grade fuel.
Raniganj – India’s first coal mine.
Jharia – Coalfields formed during Gondwana period.
Singrauli – Coalfields formed during Gondwana period
Korba – Coalfields formed during Gondwana period.
Neyveli – Coalfields formed during Gondwane period.
Singreni Talcher – Coalfield formed during Gondwana period.
- Valley of Nova, Dihang and Buri rivers situated in Lakhimpur and Dibrugarh districts of Assam.
- Digbio well is the oldest in the country.
- Kheda, Ahemdabad, Mehesana, Suray , Andleshwar, Kalol, Nawagam and Dholka in Gujarat.
- Continental shelf of the coast of Bombay,
- Four potential areas are:
- Assam and off shore Maharashtra
- Entire east coast (on and off-shore)
- Krishna – Godawari Valley
- A narrow strip across western U.P., Harayana, Punjab, Rajasthan desert, Ganga Delta, Brahmaputra Valley. And also around sea near 1 & N Islands.
- Geological favourable areas are:
- Parts of Rajasthan
- Kathiawar Peninsula
- S.W. Coast (on and off-shore)
- Bombay High – India’s largest off shore oil facility in the anticlinal structure.
- Digbio – India’s first oil field, located in the northeast of Tipam hills in DIbrugarh district of upper Assam.
- Naharkatiya – Major oil field in Assam, located at a distance of 33 KM south west of Digbio Moran.
- Ankelswar – One of the major Oil Field in Gujrat
- Kalol – North West of Ahmedabad
- Noonmati – Oil refineries of Assam
- Bongaigaon – Oil refinery of Assam.
- Tromay – Near Mumbai
- Koyali – One of the largest refineries of India, located near Vadodara.
- Barauni – Interior oil refinery in Bihar in Begusarai dist.
- Mathura – Second largest oil refinery of India located in UP.
- Kaveri Shelf – Oil reserves off the coromandal coast.
- Godavery Shelf – Oil reserves off the coromandal coast
- Digboi Refinery is the first refinery; refines crude from Naharkatiya and Moran Oil Fields.
- Contains about 0.7% of the isotope U235 which is fissionable by slow neutrons with the resultant release of enormous amount of energy.
- Its isotope U238 be transmuted to another element Plutonium which also is fissionable.
- More substantial source of uranium occur in the copper belt of Bihar and Aravali rocks in Rajasthan.
- Production is at present confined to Jaduguda Mines in Singhbum (Jharkhand) Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, estimates that its total reserves in the country are enough to provide 5,000 – 10,000 MW electricity.
- Fertile material for nuclear energy.
- Obtained from Monazite.
- The Ilmenite beach sands of Palghat and Quilen districts of Kerala contain the world’s richest monazite deposites.
- Ferrous Group
- – Iron ore – Maganese Ore – Chromite – Pyrite
- India’s reserves are sufficient to meet the internal demands and substantial exports.
- Over 20% of the world’s reserve (second largest after former USSR).
- Over 70% of India’s production includes ores with iron content above 60%.
- Hematite (Fe2O3)
- Magnetite (Fe3O4)
- Limonite (FeO3.nH2O) 209
- Iron-stone shale Hematite or has 68% iron contents.
- Contribute to more than three-fourth of India’s total production of iron ores.
- Occurs in Dharwar and Cuddapah system of Peninsula.
- Also called ‘red ores’.
- Dharwar and Cuddapah
- Iron contents over 60%
- Called ‘ black ores’ Limonite ore
- Low Iron contents (35-50%)
- Prominent constituent of Laterite Iron-stone shale ore
- Large deposit of bedded or precipitated iron-ore is found in the iron stone shale in West Bengal and Bihar.
- 96% of total reserves concentrated in Orissa, Bihar, M.P., Karnataka and Goa.
- Sundergarh, Keonjhar (kiriburu mines), Mayur Bhanj (Gurumahisani and Badam Pahar mines) and Korput. These are all in Orissa.
- Barajamda Mines.
- Guna Mines
- IISCO plants at Burnpur and Kulti obtain are supplied from the Guna Mines.
- Bailadila over (Chhatisgarh State) & Dhallirajhara range in Durg district of M.P (M.P has 25% of total reserves)
- Bailadila ores are exported to Japan.
- Sandur – Hospet area (Bellari) Kudremukh and Kemmangundi in the Bababudan hills (chikmanglur), Hosadurga (chitraduraga) in Karnataka. The state account for 15% of the total reserve.
- India is the third largest producer of ore in the world.
- Used in Iron and Steel industry and in manufacturing Ferro-Manganese alloy (both consume 84% of the total production)
- Manganese dioxide (Mno2 ) used for making dry battery.
- Dharwar System of the Peninsula contain over 90% of the country total services.
- Over 80% of total reserves are in Nagpur and Bhandara district of Maharastra and Blaghat and Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh.
- Used for producing chromium metal.
- Ferri – Chrome, an alloy of iron and chromium is used for making stainless steel.
- Reserve are concentrated in the states of Orissa (90%), Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra.
- Pyrite (FeS2 ) is a sulphide of iron.
- Chief course of sulpher in India.
- Used for making sulphuric acid, which in turn used in fertilizer, chernicals, steel rayon and petroleum industry.
- Amjhore (Bihar) deposit.
(Non – Ferrous Group)
- Over 90% of the world total gold production is used in the monetary system.
- In India, almost the entire production of this metal from the Kolar Gold Fields is sold to the RBI.
- A small quantity produced at the Hutti mines is releases for industrial purpose through the State Bank of India.
- Gold occurs in India both in the native form as Auriferous Loads and as Alluvial or several rivers.
- Reserve and production : Karnataka ranks first.
- Kolar Gold Field (KGF) reserve and production is maximum in the whole country.
- India is deficiency in Copper, depends on imports – Ores occur in India as sulphide.
- Important Deposits :
- Singhbhum – Bihar
- Alwar – Rajasthan
- JhunJhunu – Rajasthan.
- Jaipur – Rajasthan
- Jhalawar – Rajasthan
- Agni Gundala Belt – Andhra
- Malankhand Belt – M.P.
- Bihar has 37% of total production and 13% of total reserves Ranchi, Palamu and Monghry districts are famous for deposit.
- Gurjarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and T.N. are other reserves.
- Zinc and Lear Ores:
- Sphalerite (Zns) & Galena (Pbs) are zinc and lead ores respectively are being exploited at present.
- Limestones and Dolomite
- Mica, Muscovite Mica, Phlogopite and Biotite
- Apatite and Rock Phosphates (used in the manufacture of Phosphate Fertilizer)
- Kyanite and Sillimanite (world’s richest deposits in India.)
- Gypsum (used in the manufacture of ammonium sulphate fertilizer)
- Magnesite Sterlite
- Salt (common salt : contain 39.2% sodium and 60.68% chlorine)
- Chromite – Bhandara, Hassan, keonjhar.
- Asbestos – Cuddapah, Mayurbhanj, Ajmer
- Nickel – Mosabi (Singhbhum)
- Sukinda (Jaipur)
- Diamond – Anantpur, Cuddaph, Panna, Sambalpur
- Copper – Mosabani, Rakha, Balaghat, Malanjkhand, Nallakonda, Hasan Rangpo.
- Lead Zink – Zawar, Benskantha
- Gold – Kolar, Raichur, Ananthpur.
- Tungsten – Nagpur
- Mica – Gridih, Koderma, Nellore, Ajmer
- Gypsum – Nagpur, Kachchh, Baramula
- Ironore – Singhbhum, Anantpur, Goa, Bellary, Bailadilla, Rathnagiri, Keonjhar, Kudremukh, Simoga.
- Manganese – Adilabad, Chindwara, Ratnagiri, Koraput
- Uranium – Jaduguda, Quilon
- Bauxite – Katni, Palamau, Gandhmardan, Amarakantak.
- Marble – Makrana