Iron and steel Industries of India First Iron and steel plant on Modern line was started in 1830 at Porto Nova in Tamil Nadu but it closed down in 1866. The real beginning was made in 1907 when TISCO was set up at Jamshedpur.


Tata Iron and Steels Co. (TISCO)

  • Established in 1907.
  • Coal from Raniganj and Jharia
  • Iron Ore from Noamundi & Gurumahisini

Iisco Kulti, Hirapur and Burnpur

  • Established in 1864, 1908 and 1937 respectively.
  • Ore from Gunamines
  • Coal from Jharia

The Visweswaraya Iron and Steel Ltd., Bhadravati

  • Established in 1923.
  • Wooden charcoal from near forest.
  • Iron Ore from Kemangundi mines
  • Due to lack of coal, this unit was depend on wooden charcoal earlier but now dependent on Hydro-electricity from Sharavati Dam.

HSL, Bhilai (1957)

  • Established with the help of Russia.
  • Iron ore from Dali-Ra hara range.
  • Coal from Korba and Kargali

HSL, Rourkela (1958)

  • Iron ore from Sundergarh and Keonjhar districts.
  • Established with the Keonjhar districts help of West Germany
  • Coal – Jharia and Talchar.

HSL, Durgapur (1959)

  • Established with the help of Britain.
  • Iron ore from Bolani mines.
  • Coal from Jharia and Raniganj. Note: Bhilai, Rourkela and Durgapur plants were established during the second five year plan.

Bokaro Steel Plant (1964)

  • Iron ore from Kiriburu mines.
  • Established in 1964 with the help of Soviet Union.
  • Coal from Jharia.

The Salem Steel Plant (1982)

  • Based on lignite coal of TN.
  • Iron ore from nearly region.

The Visakhapatnam Steel Plant

  • Iron ore from Bailadila mines
  • Exported Coal from Australia.
  • Exoported Coal due to port Location
  • In Vijaynagar and Paradweep two Iron and Steel plants are also established.
  • In Gopalpur (Orrisa), Tata started a work for establishment of new steel plant.

Cotton Textile

The first cotton textile mills was started in 1818 at Fort Gloster near Calcutta, but could not survived. The real beginning was in Mumbai in 1854, due to the port, climate, Banking and facilities of raw materials.

Major Centres

Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara, Coimbatore, Kanpur are major centres.  Coimbatore has the highest number of mills. Production Tamil Nadu is the largest producer followed by Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.

Problem of Cotton textile industry

  • Scarcity of raw materials.
  • Obsolete machinery
  • Electricity Problems
  • Sick Mills
  • Stiff Competition
  • Bombay is the cottonopallis of the India.
  • Now in Maharashtra, Most of the mills are being established towards the inner side because of low establishment cost and availability of cheap labour than Mumbai.
  • Ahmedabad is falling problem of sick mills.
  • Kanpur center is flourished due to the large market of Northern Plain.

Jute Textile

  • First jute mill was established in 1855 at Rishra near Calcutta.
  • Hooghly belt is most suitable for jute cultivation due to location, availability of water, navigation and port facility from Calcutta.
  • Jute Industry is facing stiff competition with Bangladeshi jute and synthetic fibers in international markets.
  • In 1947, due to the partition most of the jute producing areas went to Bangladesh (East Pakistan) resulting in acute shortage of raw jute.

Sugar Industry

  • Maharashtra is the largest producer of Sugar but UP is largest producer of sugar cane.
  • There is marked difference between the Sugar mills of Northern India and Southern India. The difference area: – Peninsular India has tropical climate which gives higher yield per unit area.

–          Surcose content higher in tropical variety of sugarcane than northern India.
–          The crushing season Is longer in the south.
–          Co-operative Sugar mills are better managed in the South than north – In South India mills are equipped with modern machinery. In North India mills are old.

Shipping Industry

At present there are four main centres of Ship building industry at Vishakhapatnam, Calcutta, Kochi and Mumbai (Mazgaon Dock)

  • Among the four Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Vishakhapatnam is the largest.
  • Mazgaon Dock is famous for repairing of the Ships.
  • Cochi shipyard also build Naval Ships.

Aircraft Industry

The first Aircraft Industry was set up at Bangalore under the name of Hindustan Aircrafts Ltc. But now changed named is Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL).

  • Different parts of aircrafts are manufactured at different places due to Security reasons.
  • MIG airframe  -Nasik
  • MIG Engine – Koraput
  • MIG electronic equipment’s – Hyderabad.
  • Transport Aircrafts – Lucknow
  • Aircraft equipment’s – Kanpur.

Glass Industry

  • Firozabad (U.P.), Calcutta, Haora Raniganj, Belgaechia (WB), Mumbai, Telegaon (Pune), in Maharashtra are important Centres.
  • Fertilizers : Major Centres are: Sindri, Gorakhpur, Talchur, Ramagundam, Nangal, Panipat, Vijaipur, Kochi, Manrup, Amjhor, Durgapur, barauni. These all are in public sector, Sindri is the oldest. Hazira, Phulpur, Aonla is in cooperatine sector. SRC Kota, GNFC Broach, SPIC Tuticorin, MFC Mangalore D.C.M Delhi are in Private Sector.
  • Cement Industry: First mill was established in 1904 in Chennai, M.P., Rajashtan, Karnataka, AP., Tamil Nadu are the largest producer of the Cement. It is raw material Oriented.
  • Paper Industry: Raw materials – Bamboo, Sabai grass, Bagasse etc. First mill – Real starting in 1870 at Ballyganj near Calcutta.

Major Producer

  • Maharashtra (16.52%) – Sangli centre
  • Andhra Pradesh – Sirpur, Tirupati, kukrnool, Nellore, Apidik etc.
  • Gujarat – Rajkot, Surat, Vadodara etc.
  • UP – Saharanpur, Lalkuan, Meerut, Modinagar etc
  • West Bengal – Titagarh, Kankinara, Raniganj etc.
  • Aluminum industry is very high energy consuming this is the reason why many industries are located in Kerala, for away from the raw material sources, due to the availability of cheap Hydel electricity.
  • Heavy Machinery: Major Centers are Hatia (oldest), Durgapur, Tungbhadra, Visakhapatnam, Naini (Allahabad), trichurapali, powai etc.
  • Agricultural Machinery: Major centers are Faridabad, Calcutta, Chennai, Vadodara, Hyderabad, Sonepat.
  • Machine Tools: The Hindustan Machine Tools (H.M.T) is the first large scale modern machine tools factory set up in Public Sector in 1953 with Swiss Collaboration.
  • Other HMT factories are at

–          Pinjore (Haryana)
–          Kalomassery (Kerala)
–          Hyderabad (AP)
–          Srinagar (J&K)
–          Ajmer (Rajasthan)

Automobiles Industry

Mumbai, Chennai, Jamshedpur, Gurgaon, Jabalpur and Calcutta are the major centers. These are producing Automobiles produce passenger cars, buses, trucks. Three wheelers and two wheelers Motor Cycle are also manufactured at Faridabad and Mysore. Scooters are also manufactured at Satara, Lucknow, Akurdi (near pure), Panki (near Kanpur) and Odhav (Ahemdabad district).

Locomotives:  Centers are Chittaranjan locomotives work (electric locomotives) BHEL, Bhopal (electric locomotives), The Diesel Locomotives (Varanasi), Patiala Locomotives (Diesel Engine).

  • Rail Coaches : Manufacturing Centres are at –
  • Integral Coach Factory – Perambur.
  • Bharat movers – Bangalore
  • Rail Coach – Kapurthala
  • Jessop Co Ltd & Burn & Co. Ltd – Calcutta

Kalapakkam (Atomic Power) Industrial Centres

  • Bhadravati and Salem : Iron & Steel
  • Bangalore: Iron & Steel, Aircrafts, Watches, I.T. goods etc.
  • Madras: Military tanks, Railway coaches & Automobiles

Important Industries of India

  • The first modern paper mill of the country was set up in “Sehrampur” in West Bengal.
  • Koalin or China clay is fine clay formed by the alteration of granite by metamorphism.
  • The “cotton textile” industry in India provides the largest employment in India.
  • “Kimberlitic Pipe Rock” is the source rock for diamond.
  • Tungsten is a heavy metal with a melting point higher than any other metal.
  • “Sukinda in Orissa” is known for “chromite” deposits.
  • “Sillimanite” deposit is common in Meghalaya.
  • “Kyanite deposits” are commonly found in Bihar.
  • “Jaduguda” mines in Jharkhand are known for uranium deposits. India is World’s leading producer of “sheet mica”.
  • Bauxite deposit are mostly associated “Laterites”.
  • “Panna” of Madhya Pradesh is famous for “diamond”.
  • “Beryllium” is mostly used as moderator in nuclear power generation.
  • “Thorium” is processed from “monazite”.
  • Ramgiri, Gold-field is in the state of “Andhra Pradesh”.
  • “Neyveli” in Tamil Nadu is famous for “Lignite deposits”.
  • “Sphalerite” is a common mineral ore of “Zinc”.
  • The Collaborated steel plant in India are; Durgapur (Indo-British), Rourkela (Indo-German), Bhillai (Indo-Russia) and Bokaro (Indo – Russia).

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