INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS
Preface of Indian national congress
Hypothesis of official conspiracy
Hypothesis of safety valve
- Initial name
The initial name of congress was Indian national union but later on due to proposal of Dadabhai naraoji it got the name Indian national congress. The term congress means group of people and it was used for first time in Philadelphia convention in 1773 in U.S.A. Indian national congress was the first all India and nationalist organization whose philosophy was promotion to nation and nationalism
The first session of congress was organized in Pune but as in 1885 Pune was suffering from plague so the venue was shifted to Bombay and the first session was organized in tejpal gokul das Sanskrit college at Bombay
In the preamble of congress the basic objective declared were to guide and teach the people about modern ideologies of nationalism, democracy etc. the basic objective was to guide the difference between personal interest and national interest.
The first president of congress was W.C.banerjee ( womesh Chandra banerjee) but the active role in the formation of congress was of Allen Octavian Hume who was a British and retired civil servant and because of his role congress is accused to be the outcome of official conspiracy to be used as safety valve.
B) HYPOTHESIS OF OFFICIAL CONSPIRACY
From 1885 to 2012 congress has dominant role in polity of India this was the pain for its opponents and it was the basic cause for the birth of this hypothesis. The situation of India after 1858 and steps of congress helped the birth of this hypothesis.
After 1858 power changed from company to British crown but philosophy remain same i.e. suppression and exploitation and it affected thee following sections
a) Educate middle class was annoyed by civil service episode that lead to formation of 1st all India association by surrender nath Banerjee
b) It frustrated common man because in Deccan riots took place in 1875
In this situation government was apprehensive if above two groups i.e. educated middle class and common man will unite it will lead to repetition of revolt of 1857 therefore opponents of congress accused that congress was outcome of official conspiracy which acted as safety valve for British government
C) HYPOTHESIS OF SAFETY VALVE
- Evidence for safety valve
- Evidence against safety valve
1) EVIDENCE FOR SAFETY VALVE
- Role of Allen Octavian Hume
- Tea party
- Statement of W.C. Banerjee
ROLE OF ALLEN OCTAVIAN HUME
A.o. Hume played the main role in formation of congress who was a British retired civil servant and he himself coined the term of safety valve
When congress came into existence lord Dufferin was the viceroy of India and he gave tea party to initial delegates of congress this again became a cause of suspicion among the opponents of congress.
STATEMENT OF W.C. BANERJEE
W.C. Banerjee was first president of congress and he gave the statement that Hume is directly working under the orders of Dufferin
Therefore on the basis of above three points the opponents of congress accused that congress was outcome of official conspiracy but then congress and its supporters gave the evidences against it
2) EVIDENCE AGAINST SAFETY VALVE
- Microscopic Minority
- Attitude of Hume towards congress
- Attitude of Dufferin towards Hume
Dufferin invited initial member for tea party and propose them to work for social religious reform which was refused by congress in this situation Dufferin abused congress when he called congress a microscopic minority
ATTITUDE OF HUME TOWARDS CONGRESS
Hume was humanitarian by nature therefore he became active in formation of congress. He was general secretary of congress from 1885 – 1905 and in these years he always talked about the Interest of congress and India in which the most important evidence is Indian spectator incident it was a newspaper by a social reformer in Indian by B.M. malbari who proposed that congress should work for social reforms in India this was termed by Hume as a wrong trend.
ATTITUDE OF DUFFER IN TOWARDS HUME
Hume wrote to Dufferin that natural powers are involved in freedom struggle of India and in this circumstances Dufferin called Hume insane and fraud.
The support of Hume was necessity of the time and it seems that he held Indians on humanitarian grounds but then if he had any misdesign in his mind Indians prove to be more smarter than him because if he used Indian as safety valve, Indian used him as a lightening in thunder as quoted by Lala Lajpat Rai.