NON – CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

  • Non-Conventional energy is abundant, renewable, pollution free and eco-friendly.
  • It is the energy of the future. No wonder, non-conventional energy is the fast catching the imagination of the people in India.
  • DNES – Department of Non-Conventional Energy Source (1982)
  • Started renewable energy program in India.
  • IREDA – Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (1987).
  • MNES – In 1992, DNES was converted into Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources Government of India.
  • India’s Non-Conventional energy potential is estimated at about 1,95,000 MW of which

–          31% is from Sun.
–          30% is from OTEC
–          26% if from Bio-Fuel
–          13% is from Wind.

ENERGY SCENARIO IN INDIA

  • India HAS 0.4% of the earth’s known oil resources.
  • India has 0.6% of the gas.
  • Per capita oil & Gas consumption in India is less than 200 kg/year, about 1/3rd of the global average and about 1/5th of the US average consumption.
  • India has 6.7% of the earth’s proven reserves of coal.

Proven Reserves

It is defined by the quantities that can be extracted from known deposits with available technology and under prevailing economics.

Power Generations

Thermal – 82,410 MW
Hydro – 32,325 MW
Wind – 6190 MW
Nuclear – 3360 MW
TOTAL – 1,24,287 MW

11TH PLAN TARGET

Total target is 78,700 MW
Hydro – 15,627 MW
Thermal – 59,693 MW
Nuclear – 3380MW
–          Target for power generation for 2009-10 is 789.51 BU’s.
–          Power generation during 2008-09 was 723.55 BU’s.
Thermal – 589.91 BU’s
Hydro – 113.03 BU’s
Nuclear – 14.71 BU’s
Import from Bhutan – 5.90 BU’s

RENEWABLE SOURCES

Solar photo voltaic power – 2.74 MW
Small Hydro Power 1826.43 MW (Upto 25 MW)
Biomas/Power generation 912.53 MW
Biomass gasifier 1.00 MW
Energy from wastes 34.95
Wind Power 5310.40 MW

Total 9 Ultra Mega Power Projects established yet in India.
Each of 4000 MW capacity.

  1. Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project – in MP (6×600 MW)
  2. Mundra Ultra Mega Projects – Gujrat (5×800 MW)
  3. Krishnapatnam UMPP AP (5×800 MW)

Another 6 each in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, TN, Maharashtra & Karnataka.
High coal reserve in Jharkhand, Orissa is 2nd and Chhattisgarh is 3rd in position.

BIO FUELS IN INDIA

  • Bio fuel are fuel derived from non-fossil plant sources is the cleaner alternative to diesel. Jatropha cultivation gives biodiesel and ethanol from sugar cane are also included under it. Ethanol can be blended with petrol for automobiles. Bio-diesel can be blended with high speed diesel for transport vehicles, railway, irrigation PUMPS etc.
  • In its National Bio fuel policy the Government of India has set a target of a minimum 20% ethanol – blended petrol or diesel across the country by 2017.
  • Bio-dieses plantations would be encouraged only waste community / government / forest lands and not on fertile land.
  • Minimum purchase price (MPP) for the purchase of bio-ethanol by the oil marketing companies (OMCs) would be based on the actual cost of production and import price of bio-ethanol
  • In case of bio-diesel, the MPP would be linked to the prevailing retail diesel price.
  • The National Bio fuel Policy also envisages bringing bio-diesel and bio ethanol under the ambit of “Declared Goods” by the government to ensure their unrestricted movements.

SOLAR ENERGY

  • India, being a tropical country, is well endowed with plenty of solar energy.
  • India receives solar energy equivalent to 20 MW/ sq. km per year which is more than total energy consumption of the country.

–          Thar Desert, could well earnt he distinction of the “the “biggest Solar Power House of the world by the eyar 2010”, producing 10,000. MW of electricity.
–          A major chunk of the desert will be declared as “Solar Energy Enterprise Zone’ like the one in the Nevada (USA)
–          Projects installed at Kalyanpur, Sarai Saadi, SOliji Pally, Delhi.
–          World’s largest solar pond is in India at Madhopur, near Bhuj, Kutch (Gujarat). Hot water is used for sterlising Kutch dairy milk cans. Other uses – Generating steam and power, potable water.
–          Concept of Solar Greenhouse to grow vegetables during off season in cold and dry areas of Leh and Kargil.
–          SOlarised Huts are being designed in cold areas of J&K and Himachal Pradesh to keep the buildings warm.

WIND ENERGY

  • Low cost power.
  • Wind farms concept
  • Wind every potential 20,000 MW (given by MNEs)
  • Wind farms are being installed in coastal areas in T.N., Gujarat, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra, Karnataka, Kerala and Lakshadweep.
  • India is likely to emerge second largest wind power producer in the world after the USA>
  • Wind Atlas is being prepared for identifying future sites for wind farms.
  • Asia’s largest wind farm cluster of 150 MW is located at Muppandal in T.N. other is located in Lamba (Gujarat).

BIO GAS

  • Use of dung as domestic fuel in rural areas.
  • Decomposition of organic matter in the absence of air yields gases like -Methane and Carbon di oxide.
  • Higher thermal efficiency (60% whereas cow dung cakes give out 11%).
  • NPBD – National Project on Biogas Development (1981-82).
  • The success of biogas technology has brought about Brown Revolution in rural India.

SMALL HYDRO-POWER

Generation of electricity from small sized hydropower sources is a low cost, environment friendly and renewable source of energy.

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

  • Vast possibility of developing and exploiting geothermal energy in India.
  • 340 hot spring localities identifies so far.
  • Geothermal pilot power plants: Manikaran (Kullu Valley), Puga Valley (Ladakh).

TIDAL ENERGY

  • Potential; 8000-9000 MW
  • Gulf of Khambhat excellent site (7000 MW potential)
  • Other sites : Gulf of Kutch (1000 MW), SUnderbans (100 MW).

WAVE ENERGY

  • Potential : 50,000 MW
  • First every plant proposed to be set up off the coast of Tamil Nadu.
  • Energy from Urban and Industrial Wastes: – Efforts have been made to use this waste in cities like Delhi and Mumbai.

NUCLEAR POWER

Tarapur – India’s first nuclear power plant
Kota – Nuclear power plant located in Rajasthan.
Kalpakkam – Nuclear power plant located near Chennai
Narora – Nuclear power plant located in Buland Shaher.
Karpara – Nuclear power plant located in Gujarat
Kaiga – Gujarat
Pokhran – Nuclear power plant located in Rajasthan.
Rawatbhata – Rajasthan

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